```
#Preliminaries:
knitr::opts_chunk$set(message=FALSE, warning=FALSE, eval = FALSE) #set eval = TRUE when run first
rm(list=ls())
library(tidyverse)
library(haven)
library(bartCause)
library(kableExtra)
library(tableone)
library(gridExtra)
library(grid)
theme_set(theme_light())
dir.create("BartLabor", showWarnings = FALSE)
```

Evaluation of labor market programs is of great importance in order to learn how to better design programs and provide support effectively. Consequently, there is a huge literature on the evaluation of labor market trainings and we add to this by allowing for heterogeneous treatment effects. We will evaluate the effectiveness of a federally-funded labor treatment program (LaLonde 1986) which was implemented in the mid-1970s (US) with the objective of providing work experience. The male subsample we use consists of experimental treatment units and non-experimental comparison units (Dehejia and Wahba 1999). Let us assess whether the treatment had an impact on earnings given available pre-treatment variables.

```
#download the data:
#lalonde <- haven::read_dta("http://www.nber.org/~rdehejia/data/nsw.dta")
#saveRDS(lalonde, file="BartLabor/lalonde1986.rds")
lalonde_in <- readRDS("BartLabor/lalonde1986.rds")
lalonde <- lalonde_in %>%
mutate(race=as_factor(case_when(black==1 ~ 'black',
hispanic==1 ~ 'hispanic',
TRUE ~ 'other'))) %>%
select(-c(black, hispanic, data_id)) %>%
relocate(re78, .before = 1)
allvars <- colnames(lalonde)
allvars <- allvars[allvars!='treat']
catvars <- c("race", "married", "nodegree")
#Descriptive Statistics:
tab1 <- CreateTableOne(vars = allvars, strata="treat", data = lalonde, factorVars = catvars)
kableone(tab1, caption = "Table 1: Descriptive Statistics", col.names=c("Treat=0", "Treat=1", "p", "")) %>%
remove_column(5) %>%
kable_classic(full_width = F) %>%
save_kable("BartLabor/bart_tab1_out.png", zoom = 3)
```

Table 1 shows that the mean of our variable of interest, the outcome
*re78* (income in 1978) is higher in our treatment group. Despite
the observational character of our data, we see that the sample is
relatively homogeneous concerning the pre-treatment variables: only the
indicator variable *nodegree*, on whether a person has a high
school diploma, seems to vary between treatment and control group
significantly.

In the potential outcome framework (Rubin 2005) the average treatment effect (ATE) can be written as the expectation \(E(\delta)=E[y^1-y^0]\), where \(y^1\) and \(y^0\) are potential outcomes of income in 1978. Under conditional independence assumption \((y^1,y^0)\bot T|X\) these outcomes are independent of treatment \(T\) given covariates \(X\).

We use 2 methods in order to estimate the average treatment effect (ATE). Firstly, we apply the well known linear regression for estimation and risk adjustment (eg. Angrist and Pischke 2009; Pearl 2013). Secondly, we consider Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART) (Chipman, George, and McCulloch 2010; J. L. Hill 2011), a machine learning model recently becoming popular that allows to detect relevant interactions in the data generating process and can be used to estimate heterogeneous treatment effects as well (Carnegie, Dorie, and Hill 2019; J. Hill, Linero, and Murray 2020).

```
#Linear regression
lm <- lm(re78 ~ treat + re75 + age + education + race + married + nodegree, data=lalonde)
ate_lm <- as.data.frame(coef(lm)) %>%
bind_cols(confint(lm)) %>%
rownames_to_column() %>%
filter(rowname=='treat') %>%
rename(estimate=`coef(lm)`, ci.lower=`2.5 %`, ci.upper=`97.5 %`) %>%
mutate(model='LinReg') %>%
relocate(model, .before=1) %>%
select(-rowname)
#BART
bc_fit <- bartc(lalonde[,'re78'], lalonde[,'treat'], lalonde[,3:8], n.samples = 1000L, estimand='ate',
method.rsp='bart', method.trt='glm', verbose = FALSE)
ate_bart <- summary(bc_fit)$estimates %>%
select(-sd) %>%
mutate(model='BART') %>%
relocate(model, .before=1)
#Prepare ATE-Output
ate <- ate_lm %>%
bind_rows(ate_bart)
rownames(ate) <- NULL
kable(
ate,
format="html",
digits = 2,
caption = "Table 2: Treatment effect on income"
) %>%
kable_classic(full_width = F) %>%
footnote(general = "ci: 95 % confidence intervals for linear regression, \n credible intervals for BART ") %>%
save_kable("BartLabor/bart_tab2_out.png", zoom = 3)
```

We recognize in Table 2 that the treatment effect of BART is very similar to linear regression. The ATE-point estimates are both positive, suggesting that program participation increases average income by about 800 USD. However, both 95% confidence-, credible intervals show that there is a lot of variability in the data – an effect of zero cannot be rejected.

In addition to one point estimate we often would like to have information on treatment effects for specific subgroups. This could help us to redesign the program or allow for more effective enrollment. Obviously, these questions can be of interest also in other areas – imagine online marketing or personalized medicine for example. Thankfully, BART can also provide treatment effects for each observation in the data, which are called the individual conditional average treatment effects (iCATE): \(\tau(X_i)=E[y^1_i-y^0_i|X_i]\). Let us have a look at the distribution of individual CATE in Figure 1.

```
#Extract individual treatment effects
i_cate <- fitted(bc_fit, type="icate", sample = c("all"))
data_cate <- lalonde %>%
bind_cols(as.data.frame(i_cate))
#Histogram CATE
bart_p1 <- data_cate %>%
ggplot(aes(x=i_cate)) +
geom_histogram(bins=20, color='black', fill='grey') +
theme_minimal() + labs(y = 'Number of people', x='individual CATE', title='Figure 1: Distribution of iCATE')
ggsave(bart_p1, file="BartLabor/bart_p1.png") # import in markdown
```

Interestingly, although the peak of the distribution is around 800 similar to ATE from above, the treatment effects vary a lot. There are even individuals for which a negative effect can be seen. In order to better understand the data generating process, we want to check next whether the individual treatment effects vary with explanatory variables, that could moderate the treatment effect. Figure 2 visualizes the treatment effects dependent on numeric variables age, income and years of education before treatment.

```
#Scatterplots:
#age
p2 <- data_cate %>%
mutate(treat=as_factor(treat)) %>%
ggplot(aes(y=i_cate, x=age)) +
geom_point(aes(color=treat)) +
scale_colour_manual(values=c("blue", "orange")) +
geom_smooth(color='black') +
theme_minimal()
#income
p3 <- data_cate %>%
mutate(treat=as_factor(treat)) %>%
ggplot(aes(y=i_cate, x=re75)) +
geom_point(aes(color=treat)) +
scale_colour_manual(values=c("blue", "orange")) +
geom_smooth(color='black') +
theme_minimal()
#educ
p4 <- data_cate %>%
mutate(treat=as_factor(treat)) %>%
ggplot(aes(y=i_cate, x=education)) +
geom_point(aes(color=treat)) +
geom_smooth(aes(y=i_cate, x=education)) +
scale_colour_manual(values=c("blue", "orange")) +
geom_smooth(color='black') +
scale_x_continuous(breaks = rep(1:8)*2) +
theme_minimal()
#combine plots next to each other
title1=textGrob("Figure 2: CATE by numeric variables", gp=gpar(fontface="bold"))
bart_p2 <- arrangeGrob(p2, p3, p4, ncol=2, top=title1)
ggsave(bart_p2, file="BartLabor/bart_p2.png") # import in markdown
```

We see that program effectiveness increased with age until a threshold of 30 years. The program seems to have been most effective for people between 5 and 10K USD whereas the relationship between years of education and iCATE is U-shaped. The scatterplots allow to visually distinguish iCATE by treatment status – a very nice feature as discussed above. Next let us assess the interaction of our treatment with the factor variables.

```
#Boxplots:
#race
p5 <- data_cate %>%
ggplot(aes(y=i_cate, x=race)) +
geom_boxplot() +
theme_minimal()
#married
p6 <- data_cate %>%
mutate(married=as.factor(married)) %>%
ggplot(aes(y=i_cate, x=married)) +
geom_boxplot() +
theme_minimal()
p7 <- data_cate %>%
mutate(nodegree=as.factor(nodegree)) %>%
ggplot(aes(y=i_cate, x=nodegree)) +
geom_boxplot() +
theme_minimal()
title2=textGrob("Figure 2: CATE by factor variables", gp=gpar(fontface="bold"))
bart_p3 <- arrangeGrob(p5, p6, p7, ncol=2, top=title2)
ggsave(bart_p3, file="BartLabor/bart_p3.png") # import in markdown
```

Figure 3 reveals that black colored benefited most from the program whereas being hispanic is associated with negative CATE. Married people benefited highly from program participation as well.

We analysed the impact of a labor market program by using linear regression and BART, a tree based nonparametric Bayesian regression approach which very successfully recovers the underlying data generating process in the presence of interactions. We have found some evidence for effect moderation of the treatment, especially being married and black color are associated with a positive treatment effect. The relation between pre-treatment income and iCATE is nonlinear. Marital status and income were found to generate interaction effects by Rolling (2014) as well.

Let us recall the assumption that all relevant control variables are accounted for in the analysis (ignorability). This does not necessary hold true and is also emphasized by the seminal study of LaLonde (1986). See for example VanderWeele and Shpitser (2011) for a discussion of confounder selection. Furthermore, when estimating ATE we mainly focused on modeling the outcome equation of our treatment, hence we implicitly assume no selection into treatment. Luckily, other treatment effects (ATT, ATC) can be generated by re-weighting towards the population of interest (eg. Morgan and Todd 2008), both in case of linear regression and BART.

Angrist, Joshua D, and Jörn-Steffen Pischke. 2009. *Mostly Harmless
Econometrics: An Empiricist’s Companion*. Princeton university
press.

Carnegie, Nicole, Vincent Dorie, and Jennifer L Hill. 2019.
“Examining Treatment Effect Heterogeneity Using BART.”
*Observational Studies* 5 (2): 52–70.

Chipman, Hugh A, Edward I George, and Robert E McCulloch. 2010.
“BART: Bayesian Additive Regression Trees.” *The Annals
of Applied Statistics* 4 (1): 266–98.

Dehejia, Rajeev H, and Sadek Wahba. 1999. “Causal Effects in
Nonexperimental Studies: Reevaluating the Evaluation of Training
Programs.” *Journal of the American Statistical
Association* 94 (448): 1053–62.

Hill, Jennifer L. 2011. “Bayesian Nonparametric Modeling for
Causal Inference.” *Journal of Computational and Graphical
Statistics* 20 (1): 217–40.

Hill, Jennifer, Antonio Linero, and Jared Murray. 2020. “Bayesian
Additive Regression Trees: A Review and Look Forward.” *Annual
Review of Statistics and Its Application* 7 (1).

LaLonde, Robert J. 1986. “Evaluating the Econometric Evaluations
of Training Programs with Experimental Data.” *The American
Economic Review*, 604–20.

Morgan, Stephen L, and Jennifer J Todd. 2008. “6. A Diagnostic
Routine for the Detection of Consequential Heterogeneity of Causal
Effects.” *Sociological Methodology* 38 (1): 231–82.

Pearl, Judea. 2013. “Linear Models: A Useful
‘Microscope’ for Causal Analysis.” *Journal of
Causal Inference* 1 (1): 155–70.

Rolling, Craig Anthony. 2014. “Estimation of Conditional Average
Treatment Effects.” PhD thesis, University of Minnesota.

Rubin, Donald B. 2005. “Causal Inference Using Potential Outcomes:
Design, Modeling, Decisions.” *Journal of the American
Statistical Association* 100 (469): 322–31.

VanderWeele, Tyler J, and Ilya Shpitser. 2011. “A New Criterion
for Confounder Selection.” *Biometrics* 67 (4): 1406–13.

Wickham, Hadley, Evan Miller, and Danny Smith. 2022. *Haven: Import
and Export ’SPSS’, ’Stata’ and ’SAS’ Files*. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=haven.

Zhu, Hao. 2021. *kableExtra: Construct Complex Table with ’Kable’ and
Pipe Syntax*. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=kableExtra.